[ m o n s o o n s
: s u m m e r m o n s o o n ]
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During the summer monsoon,
- Heat is reflected off the Tibetan plateau, heating the air
above it and causing it to rise. Low-level warm air also flows
southward from the Arabian peninsula, the African Sahel desert,
Rajasthan, and Pakistan.
- The westerly jet stream over northern India shifts north of
the Himilayas. The westerly jet stream in south India changes
direction and becomes an easterly.
- The Somali jet stream crosses into the Arabian Sea, changing
the direction of ocean currents. Colder water welling up from
lower ocean layers lowers the temperature.
- A low-pressure trough where the southern and northern trade
winds meet, a border known as the intertropical convergence zone
(ITCZ), moves north.
- Tropical storms, depressions, cyclones, squall lines, and
daily cycles become create uncertainties.
- A low-pressure “monsoon trough” appears parallel to the
Himalayan mountains in the south. The trough’s fluctuations
influence when monsoon rains fall and stop.
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