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[ m o n s o o n s   :   s u m m e r   m o n s o o n ]

During the summer monsoon,

  • Heat is reflected off the Tibetan plateau, heating the air above it and causing it to rise. Low-level warm air also flows southward from the Arabian peninsula, the African Sahel desert, Rajasthan, and Pakistan.
  • The westerly jet stream over northern India shifts north of the Himilayas. The westerly jet stream in south India changes direction and becomes an easterly.
  • The Somali jet stream crosses into the Arabian Sea, changing the direction of ocean currents. Colder water welling up from lower ocean layers lowers the temperature.
  • A low-pressure trough where the southern and northern trade winds meet, a border known as the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), moves north.
  • Tropical storms, depressions, cyclones, squall lines, and daily cycles become create uncertainties.
  • A low-pressure “monsoon trough” appears parallel to the Himalayan mountains in the south. The trough’s fluctuations influence when monsoon rains fall and stop.

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