From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Volga River (Peка Волга)|
Volga in Yaroslavl (autumn morning)
|Major cities||Astrakhan, Volgograd, Samara, Kazan, Nizhniy Novgorod, Yaroslavl|
|Length||3,692 km (2,294 mi)|
|Watershed||1,380,000 km² (532,821 mi²)|
|- average||8,060 m³/s (284,636 ft³/s)|
|- location||Valdai Hills, Tver Oblast|
|- elevation||225 m (738 ft)|
|- elevation||-28 m (-92 ft)|
|- left||Oka River|
|- right||Kama River|
The Volga (Russian: Волга, Tatar: İdel or Sari-su), widely viewed as the national river of Russia, flows through the western part of the country. It is Europe's longest river, with a length of 3,692 kilometers (2,294 mi), and forms the core of the largest river system in Europe. Some of the largest reservoirs in the world can be found along the river.
The Russian hydronym "Волга" is akin to the Slavic word for "wetness", "humidity" (влага, волога). The Russian name is transliterated as Volga in English and Wolga in German. Another possibility is that the river's name has Finnic roots.
The Turkic peoples living along the river formerly referred to it as Itil or Atil (probably the origin of Attila's name). In modern Turkic languages, the Volga is known as İdel (Идел) in Tatar, Атăл (Atăl) in Chuvash and İdil in Turkish. Another version of the same root is represented by Mari Юл (Jul). Under the Mongols, the river was known by its Tatar name Sari-su ("yellow water").
A still more ancient hydronym is the Scythian name of the river, Rha, which may reflect the ancient Avestan and Sanskrit names Rañha and Rasah for a sacred river. This ancient name survives in the modern Mordvin name for the Volga, Рав (Raw).
Rising in the Valdai Hills 225 meters (738.2 ft) above sea level north-west of Moscow and about 320 kilometers (198.8 mi) south-east of Saint Petersburg, the Volga heads east past Lake Sterzh, Tver, Dubna, Rybinsk, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, and Kazan. From there it turns south, flows past Ulyanovsk, Tolyatti, Samara, Saratov and Volgograd, and discharges into the Caspian Sea below Astrakhan at 28 meters (91.9 ft) below sea level. At its most strategic point, it bends toward the Don ("the big bend"). Volgograd, formerly Stalingrad, is located there.
The Volga has many tributaries, most importantly the Kama, the Oka, the Vetluga, and the Sura rivers. The Volga and its tributaries form the Volga river system, which drains an area of about 1.35 million square kilometres in the most heavily populated part of Russia. The Volga Delta has a length of about 160 kilometres and includes as many as 500 channels and smaller rivers. The largest estuary in Europe, it is the only place in Russia where pelicans, flamingoes, and lotuses may be found. The Volga freezes for most of its length during three months of each year.
The Volga drains most of Western Russia. Its many large reservoirs provide irrigation and hydroelectric power. The Moscow Canal, the Volga-Don Canal, and the Mariinsk Canal systems form navigable waterways connecting Moscow to the White Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea. High levels of chemical pollution currently give cause for environmental concern.
The fertile river valley provides large quantities of wheat, and also has many mineral riches. A substantial petroleum industry centres on the Volga valley. Other minerals include natural gas, salt, and potash. The Volga Delta and the nearby Caspian Sea offer superb fishing grounds. Astrakhan, at the delta, is the centre of the caviar industry.
 Confluents (downstream to upstream)
- Akhtuba (near Volzhsky), a distributary
- Samara (in Samara)
- Kama (south of Kazan)
- Kazanka (in Kazan)
- Sviyaga (west of Kazan)
- Vetluga (near Kozmodemyansk)
- Sura (in Vasilsursk)
- Kerzhenets (near Lyskovo)
- Oka (in Nizhny Novgorod)
- Uzola (near Balakhna)
- Unzha (near Yuryevets)
- Kostroma (in Kostroma)
- Kotorosl (in Yaroslavl)
- Sheksna (in Cherepovets)
- Mologa (near Vesyegonsk)
- Kashinka (near Kalyazin)
- Nerl (near Kalyazin)
- Medveditsa (near Kimry)
- Dubna (in Dubna)
- Shosha (near Konakovo)
- Tvertsa (in Tver)
 Reservoirs (downstream to upstream)
A number of large hydroelectric reservoirs were constructed on the Volga during the Soviet rule. They are:
- Ivankovo Reservoir
- Uglich Reservoir
- Rybinsk Reservoir
- Gorky Reservoir
- Cheboksary Reservoir
- Kuybyshev Reservoir – the largest in Europe by surface
- Saratov Reservoir
- Volgograd Reservoir
 Human history
The ancient scholar Ptolemy of Alexandria mentions the lower Volga in his Geography (Book 5, Chapter 8, 2nd Map of Asia). He calls it the Rha, which was the Scythian name for the river. Ptolemy believed the Don and the Volga shared the same upper branch, which flowed from the Hyperborean Mountains.
The downstream of the Volga, widely believed to have been a cradle of the Proto-Indo-European civilization, was settled by Huns and other Turkic peoples in the first millennium AD, replacing Scythians.
Subsequently the river basin played an important role in the movements of peoples from Asia to Europe. A powerful polity of Volga Bulgaria once flourished where the Kama river joins the Volga, while Khazaria controlled the lower stretches of the river. Such Volga cities as Atil, Saqsin, or Sarai were among the largest in the medieval world. The river served as an important trade route connecting Scandinavia, Rus', and Volga Bulgaria with Khazaria and Persia.
Khazars were replaced by Kipchaks, Kimeks and Mongols, who founded the Golden Horde in the lower stream of Volga. Later the Empire broke into the Khanate of Kazan and Khanate of Astrakhan; subsequently they were conquered by Russians in the 16th century.
In modern times, the city on the big bend of the Volga, currently known as Volgograd, witnessed the Battle of Stalingrad, the bloodiest battle in human history. The Russian people's deep feeling for the Volga often finds echoes in their songs and literature (see The Volga Boatmen's Song for one conspicuous example).
 Ethnic groups
The indigenous population of Upper Volga were Finnic Merya, that were assimilated to Russians. Other Finnic ethnic groups are Maris and Mordvins of middle Volga. Turkic populations appeared in the 600s and assimilated some Finnic and Indo-European population at the middle and lower Volga, later they were transformed to Christian Chuvash and Muslim Tatars; also to Nogais, which were supplanted to Daghestan later. Mongolian Buddhists Kalmyks resettled to Volga in the 17th century.
The Volga region is home to a German minority group, the Volga Germans. Catherine the Great had issued a Manifesto in 1763 inviting all foreigners to come and populate the region, offering them numerous incentives to do so. This was partly to develop the region but also to provide a buffer zone between the Russians and the Mongol hordes to the east. Because of conditions in German territories, the Germans responded in the largest numbers. Under the Soviet Union a slice of the region was turned into the Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic to house many of the Volga Germans. Others were executed or dispersed throughout the Soviet Union prior to and after World War II.
The Volga is of great importance to inland shipping and transport in Russia: all the dams in the river have been equipped with large (double) ship locks, so that vessels of considerable dimensions can actually travel from the Caspian Sea almost to the upstream end of the river. Connections with the Don River and the Black Sea are possible through the Volga-Don Canal. Connections with the lakes of the north (Lake Ladoga, Lake Onega), Saint Petersburg and the Baltic Sea are possible through the Volga-Baltic Waterway; and a liaison with Moscow has been realised by the Moscow Canal connecting the Volga and the Moskva rivers. This infrastructure has been designed for vessels of a relatively large scale (lock dimensions of 290 x 30 meters on the Volga, slightly smaller on some of the other rivers and canals) and it spans many thousands of kilometers.
Until recently access to the Russian waterways was only granted on a very limited scale. The increasing contacts between the European Union and Russia have led to new policies with regard to the access to the Russian inland waterways. It is expected that vessels of other nations will be allowed on the Russian rivers soon. (Source: NoorderSoft Waterways Database)
 See also
- ^ Lebedynsky, Iaroslav. Les Sarmates : Amazones et lanciers cuirassés entre Oural et Danube. Paris: Editions Errance, 2002.
 External links
|Tributaries: Tvertsa • Shosha • Dubna • Medveditsa • Nerl • Kashinka • Mologa • Sheksna • Kotorosl • Kostroma • Unzha • Uzola • Oka • Kerzhenets • Sura • Vetluga • Sviyaga • Kazanka • Kama • Samara • Akhtuba (distributary)|
|Reservoirs: Volgo Lake • Ivankovo • Uglich • Rybinsk • Gorky • Cheboksary • Kuybyshev • Saratov • Volgograd|
|Hydroelectric stations: Ivankovo • Uglich • Rybinsk • Nizhny Novgorod • Cheboksary • Zhigulyov • Saratov • Volga|